Acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that grows in the internal auditory canal and affects the hearing, facial, and balance nerves.
Auto-immune inner ear disease is a condition in which hearing loss and imbalance—manifested either as disequilibrium or vertigo—occurs as a result of a patient’s own immune system producing antibodies against his/her inner ear.
A basilar skull fracture is a fracture through the bone at the base of the brain. A temporal bone fracture is a fracture of the part of the skull that houses the middle ear, inner ear, and facial nerve.
Bell's Palsy is a condition thought to be caused by a virus in which one-sided facial paralysis occurs due to inflammation of the facial nerve.
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is a condition where vertigo (a sensation of spinning) is brought on by changing the position of the head (e.g. looking up, bending down, rolling over in bed)
Cholesteatoma is a benign growth of skin in the middle ear and/or mastoid that can lead to infection and more serious problems involving the brain and facial nerve.
A chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor found at the petro-occipital synchondrosis, the joint between the clivus and the petrous bone of the skull.
A clival chordoma is a malignant tumor of the clivus. The clivus is a portion of bone located at the base of the skull.
Congenital cholesteatoma is a collection of skin that forms in the middle ear before birth.
An encephalocele is a region of herniated brain. The term meningocele refers to herniated dura (covering of the brain).
A facial paralysis that begins insidiously and progresses in severity is characteristic of a tumor arising from the facial nerve or, more commonly, a tumor that arises from adjacent structures and secondarily invades the facial nerve.
Facial paralysis from a middle ear infection happens when the facial nerve that courses through the middle ear is dehiscent, meaning that the facial nerve is uncovered.
Labyrinthitis is an infection involving the inner ear that typically causes hearing loss and vertigo.
Meniere's Disease is a disorder characterized by dizziness and/or vertigo, hearing loss, ringing in the ear, and/or a feeling of fullness in the ear.
Neurovascular compression is a condition in which blood vessels around the hearing, balance, and facial nerves can cause compression and lead to sensations of hearing loss, imbalance, and abnormal facial movements.
Otitis externa is an infection involving the ear canal.
Otitis media is an infection of the middle ear, the area behind the eardrum.
Otosclerosis is a condition in which the bones in the middle ear become fixed and immobile, leading to hearing loss (usually one-sided).
A paraganglioma is a tumor that originates from cells called paraganglia found in the middle ear:
*Glomus tympanicum tumors are small sized tumors originating in the middle ear.
*Glomus jugulare arise from paraganglia in or around the jugular bulb, and as they grow they occlude this venous structure.
A perforated ear drum is a hole in the ear drum.
Perilymphatic fistula is a condition in which fluid leaks out from the inner ear and causes hearing loss and disequilibrium or vertigo.
Petroclival meningioma is a tumor of the meninges, which is a system of membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord.
A petrous apex cholesterol granuloma is a tumor that occurs when serum from leaky capillaries within the petrous apex begins to accumulate and forms a cystic structure.
Petrous apex epidermoid is a condition where skin gets entrapped into the petrous apex of the skull and forms a tumor.
Ramsay-Hunt syndrome is facial paralysis caused by the chicken pox virus (varicella).
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is hearing loss that results from damage to either the cochlea or the cochlear nerve.
Superior Canal Dehiscence is when the bony cap over the superior semicircular canal has eroded away and the tough covering (dura) that protects the temporal lobe can make contact with the inner membranes of this canal causing disequilibrium.
Tinnitus is a condition characterized as ringing in the ear.
Traumatic facial paralysis occurs when the facial nerve is injured due to trauma to the head and/or face.
Hearing loss can be conductive (disruption of the transmission of sound within the ear canal or the middle ear), sensorineural (caused by damage to the cochlea or the cochlear nerve), or mixed (both conductive and sensorineural).
Vestibular neuronitis is a condition characterized as disequilibrium or vertigo originating from the balance nerves that is not associated with hearing loss.